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Are we missing a good definition for as needed? Don't keep it to yourself Submit Definition. The fingerspelling provided here is most commonly used for proper names of people and places; it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment. There are obviously specific signs for many words available in sign language that are more appropriate for daily usage. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe. If by any chance you spot an offensive image within your image search results please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly.

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However, functions added to JACK after version 0. If its null, it means that the JACK installed on this machine is too old to support this function. If its not null, then Jill can use it just like any other function in the API.

For example:. It is important to understand that very few clients need to do this - if you use this feature you should have a clear reason to do so.

Your program does not conform. This one does:. So you'd build it without reference to libjack like:. That seems to leave you in a position of being independently dissatisfied that as-needed linkage works the way it does, rather than in a different way that would allow you to weaken all your references to the JACK API and still get libjack to be needed by your weak references to its API symbols I fail to see why a weak dependency is considered as no dependency at all.

Your view that a weak symbol reference gives rise to a weak linkage dependency on a library that defines the symbol does not have a footing for the GNU linker. A program depends on a library if its linkage needs a symbol definition that the libary provides; otherwise it doesn't depend on that libary: there aren't weak and strong degrees of dependency.

The Darwin Mach-O linker does support a cognate distinction. There are weak symbols , as opposed to the default and usual kind, which is strong. The linker is not obliged to find a definition for it: it may remain undefined in the output file. The linker is not obliged to fault multiple weak definitions of the same symbol in different input files.

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If exactly one defining reference within the linkage is strong, then that strong definition is picked and all weak ones ignored. If all defining references in the linkage are weak then the linker will pick one at random.

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From the first part of that it follows that an undefined weak reference to a symbol does not give rise to a linkage dependency at all. A definition is not needed and the fact that a definition is not needed is the result of a decision by the programmer e.

It is not reasonable to expect that the linker, if directed to link only shared libraries that are needed , should then link libraries to furnish definitions of symbols for which you or the compiler have told it that definitions are not needed. Linking your problem program with -no-as-needed is successful as a way of smothering the bug in the program.

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Hence the segfault with as-needed linkage. Including it says your program doesn't need any of the API definitions: -no-as-needed says, whatever they are, you're getting them all anyway. If you are planning that, then you have no alternative to runtime discovery of all the JACK APIs you use, regardless of linkage conventions, because you can't link libjack anyway. Learn more. First 10 Free. Asked 2 years, 3 months ago. Active 1 year, 3 months ago. Viewed 2k times. Extrasystoles like the presence of premature beats compared to the normal rate, identified by the nursing assistant, verified by the pediatrician in monitors.

The data for the registration of these adverse events were collected from the central monitor CNS Nihon Kohden V J with the help of the Vorax software Spanish version. Days of mechanical ventilation and stay in the PICU accounted every day at 7 hours and 30 minutes.

During weekends and holidays, the person in charge of the measurements was the nurse on duty. For the calculation, it was taken into account the date, time entry and discharge in the PICU in the registration of the electronic health record. Measurements of the cardiopulmonary parameters were done by the nursing assistant, the nurse, the respiratory therapist or the pediatrician and were recorded in a standardized registration sheet.

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A different physician from the treating group assigned the diagnosis according to analyses done on such data. Calculation was based on findings from the literature. The alpha error was set a significant level of 0. Taking into account that it was about repeated measurements, sample size was done with an intracluster coefficient correlation ICC of 0.

Hoping to have a minimum of 20 suctions for each patient included in the study, the minimum number of patients per group required to fulfill these criteria was The program used for the calculation was Sampsize version 1. The randomly assigned units were the patients and the analysis units were the suctions.

For those demographic and clinical characteristics of the population represented in dichotomous variables, absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. For continuous variables, the normal distribution of the data was assessed by measures of central tendency, measures of distribution, graphics and the Shapiro-Wilk test. Due to the skewed distribution of the data, medians were used with its respective interquartile range IQR. For bivariate analysis of categorical variables, the Chi square statistic was used.

In those cases were the marginal expected values were lower than 5, continuity correction was applied. Continuous variables were compared with Mann-Whitney test. For both types of variables, a p value less than 0. To estimate the relative risk of the primary composite end point was considered the fact that responses were correlated. It was necessary to model the data using techniques for dichotomous outcomes by generalized estimating equations GEE. Within the model, the number that identified each patient in the data base represented the variability between-subject and the measurements ET suctioning represented the variability within-subject.

The type of model chosen was the binary logistic response. The dependent variable was the primary composite end point, the category of reference was the control group and as predictable factors the ET suctioning protocol routine or as-needed and the number episodes of ET suctioning were used. During the study period, patients were admitted to the PICU. Of these patients, 92 were randomly assigned to receive as-needed or routine ET suctioning protocol. Finally, 45 patients received as-needed ET suctioning and 45 received routine ET suctioning.

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Median age was The median duration of mechanical ventilation and stay in the PICU, was of 2. Ninety-eight per cent of the participants received sedation, bed bath and position changes according to the nursing care protocol. Patient clinical characteristics and demographic data were similar between the two groups Table 1. The median of ET suctioning for each patient of the intervention and control group was 8 suctions IQR: 4. The mean time between each aspiration in as-needed ET suctioning group was 3.

At the end of the follow up, the primary composite end point was presented in 35 5. After evaluating the different correlation structures, the independent structure was chosen and an OR for the primary composite end point was obtained of 0. In the intervention group the median of the length of mechanical ventilation was 2. The length of stay in the PICU was longer for the intervention group with a median of 6. In an exploratory analysis was discovered that 12 There was not follow-up after PICU discharge.

This trial suggests that the application of one as-needed ET suctioning protocol compared to one of routine ET suctioning, does not present differences in the frequency of morbidity for the children who were admitted to the PICU. Although indicated to declare equality between two interventions it is necessary to perform a non-inferiority trial, the small difference found between the two groups, with minimal clinical significance, suggests that both interventions are similar with respect to adverse events, consistent with current recommendations of clinical guidelines.

The frequency of ET suctioning and the outcomes compared in those trials were different than those assessed in our trial. A revision of five old studies, with only one randomized trial, addressing the frequency of suctioning in neonates and infants concluded that there is a paucity of evidence to support suctioning as needed in neonates and infants The findings in our research provide additional information for a pediatric population, for whom suctioning frequency was not previously evaluated.

There exist several observational studies in the pediatric population, which have described the incidence of adverse events associated to the practice of the ET suctioning, and have been reviewed recently Some authors have described the increase of days of mechanical ventilation and stay in the PICU as a consequence of the accidental extubation Our trial did not show differences in both durations, one of the aspects that could influence this result could be the absence of accidental extubations.